1, if the washer: to understand what kind of, if the products without thermal treatment, as long as hardened hardness can be achieved through some rolling and cooling requirements, that is the relationship between selected specifications and NIP. 140HV flat washer figure, combining wave spring pads, elastic pads, and so on.
2, if the bolts: performance is below 6.8 can reach directly through the cold heading property, which is by peening method, but the amount of compression you want to reach a certain amount, otherwise unattainable, which involves determine the total deformation of cold work hardening.
3, austenitic stainless steel fasteners: this type of fastener strength mainly by cold work hardening hardness achieved its cold work hardening is also directly related to its deformation, strength and hardness is, we want to know how to predict. There is a concept of total deformation: the total deformation in carbon steel or stainless steel material, after suitable heat treatment after the plasticity of the material recovered, wire (or rolling) and for cold heading (such as cutting the extrusion) deformation such as and. Like rod without shrinking, that Rod before the cold heading rigidity and strength is to reach a certain value in advance, otherwise the strength requirement would be difficult to achieve. In or heading to take fully into account the raw material State, is tempering materials, normalizing and tempering materials, also free, if high hardness should not cold-formed after the drawing, it must be balanced.